Statistical optimization of voriconazole nanoparticles loaded carboxymethyl chitosan-poloxamer based in situ gel for ocular delivery: In vitro, ex vivo, and toxicity assessment
The research study reflects the development of novel voriconazole (VCZ) loaded nanoparticles (NPs) for prolonged delivery for the management of ocular diseases. The in situ ophthalmic gel was prepared by incorporating NPs into carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCh) and poloxamer. The central composite design was used to optimize the process for the preparation of nanoparticles by the o/w solvent evaporation method. The developed nanoparticles were evaluated for the encapsulation efficiency (89.6 ± 1.2%), particle size (219.3 ± 1.8 nm), polydispersity index (PDI, 0.1), zeta potential (− 21.1 ± 1.12 mV), saturation solubility, DSC study, and drug release. The etherification process grafts carboxyl surface functional groups, on chitosan, and was confirmed by FTIR and NMR studies.
The developed CMCh-poloxamer based gelling system was found to be clear and transparent with gelation temperature varying from 33 to 40 °C. The nanoparticle-loaded gel containing CMCh demonstrated enhanced antifungal activity against Candida albicans. The optimized batch containing CMCh showed improved mucoadhesion by 2.86-fold compared to VCZ nanosuspension. The drug release was prolonged up to 8 h with an ex vivo study suggesting the enhanced permeation across goat cornea estimated via fluorescent microscope. The hen’s egg chorioallantoic membrane study revealed that the formulation was non-irritant and tolerated by the chorioallantoic membrane. The present study concludes that the VCZ loaded nanoparticulate in situ ophthalmic gel using CMCh may act as a potential alternative for traditional eye drops.
Pardeshi, S.R., More, M.P., Patil, P.B. et al. Statistical optimization of voriconazole nanoparticles loaded carboxymethyl chitosan-poloxamer based in situ gel for ocular delivery: In vitro, ex vivo, and toxicity assessment. Drug Deliv. and Transl. Res. (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13346-022-01171-0