Recent strategies and advances in the fabrication of nano lipid carriers and their application towards brain targeting

In last two decades, the lipid nanocarriers have been extensively investigated for their drug targeting efficiency towards the critical areas of the human body like CNS, cardiac region, tumor cells, etc. Owing to the flexibility and biocompatibility, the lipid-based nanocarriers, including nanoemulsion, liposomes, SLN, NLC etc. have gained much attention among various other nanocarrier systems for brain targeting of bioactives.

Across different lipid nanocarriers, NLC remains to be the safest, stable, biocompatible and cost-effective drug carrier system with high encapsulation efficiency. Drug delivery to the brain always remains a challenging issue for scientists due to the complex structure and various barrier mechanisms surrounding the brain. The application of a suitable nanocarrier system and the use of any alternative route of drug administration like nose-to-brain drug delivery could overcome the hurdle and improves the therapeutic efficiency of CNS acting drugs thereof. NLC, a second-generation lipid nanocarrier, upsurges the drug permeation across the BBB due to its unique structural properties.

The biocompatible lipid matrix and nano-size make it an ideal drug carrier for brain targeting. It offers many advantages over other drug carrier systems, including ease of manufacturing and scale-up to industrial level, higher drug targeting, high drug loading, control drug release, compatibility with a wide range of drug substances, non-toxic and non-irritant behavior.

This review highlights recent progresses towards the development of NLC for brain targeting of bioactives with particular reference to its surface modifications, formulations aspects, pharmacokinetic behavior and efficacy towards the treatment of various neurological disorders like AD, PD, schizophrenia, epilepsy, brain cancer, CNS infection (viral and fungal), multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and cerebral malaria. This work describes in detail the role and application of NLC, along with its different fabrication techniques and associated limitations.

Specific emphasis is given to compile a summary and graphical data on the area explored by scientists and researchers worldwide towards the treatment of neurological disorders with or without NLC. The article also highlights a brief insight into two prime approaches for brain targeting, including drug delivery across BBB and direct nose-to-brain drug delivery along with the current global status of specific neurological disorders. More on nano-lipid carriers and brain targeting

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