Nanonutraceuticals — Challenges and Novel Nano-based Carriers for Effective Delivery and Enhanced Bioavailability

Nutraceuticals, the active compounds found abundant in most of the natural products, have shown beneficial effects on human health. Their absorption when consumed is limited owing to their poor solubility and unsuitable chemical and physical properties. In order to empower the beneficial properties and enhance the efficacy of nutraceuticals, nanotechnological approaches have ventured in as a frontier to improve the bioavailability. An updated overview on this area is the need of the hour to explore the importance of nanocarriers in delivering the nutraceuticals more effectively. This overview initially started with the introduction of nutraceuticals their importance, limitations and challenges encountered during their absorption. Traditional route of delivering nutraceuticals and limitations have been described. Different types of nano-based systems for effectively delivering the nutraceuticals at the targeted site have also been highlighted.

Finally, some of the novel nano-based carrier systems used in effectively encapsulating the nutraceuticals both at in vitro and in vivo animal models have also been critically reviewed with additional data toward their synthesis and other characteristics. From the overview, it was clear that the nutraceuticals with potential health benefits could not be absorbed in the gastro-intestinal tract owing to their bioavailability and stability. Nano-based delivery systems such as niosomes, nanogels, nanocapsules etc. showed effective loading of these labile nutraceuticals protecting them from various pH conditions thereby delivering them at the targeted site. Further, the nanocarriers were found effective in delivering the anticancer bioactives at the damaged site leaving the surrounding environment unaffected. Finally, the limitations pertaining to toxicity need to be addressed by framing effective guidelines and policies prior to human and animal use.

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Muthukrishnan, L. Nanonutraceuticals — Challenges and Novel Nano-based Carriers for Effective Delivery and Enhanced Bioavailability. Food Bioprocess Technol (2022).

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