Role of the Encapsulation in Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds

Plant-derived phenolic compounds have multiple positive health effects for humans attributed to their antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties, etc. These effects strongly depend on their bioavailability in the organism. Bioaccessibility, and consequently bioavailability of phenolic compounds significantly depend on the structure and form in which they are introduced into the organism, e.g., through a complex food matrix or as purified isolates. Furthermore, phenolic compounds interact with other macromolecules (proteins, lipids, dietary fibers, polysaccharides) in food or during digestion, which significantly influences their bioaccessibility in the organism, but due to the complexity of the mechanisms through which phenolic compounds act in the organism this area has still not been examined sufficiently. Simulated gastrointestinal digestion is one of the commonly used in vitro test for the assessment of phenolic compounds bioaccessibility. Encapsulation is a method that can positively affect bioaccessibility and bioavailability as it ensures the coating of the active component and its targeted delivery to a specific part of the digestive tract and controlled release. This comprehensive review aims to present the role of encapsulation in bioavailability of phenolic compounds as well as recent advances in coating materials used in encapsulation processes. The review is based on 258 recent literature references.

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or continue reading here: Grgić, J.; Šelo, G.; Planinić, M.; Tišma, M.; Bucić-Kojić, A. Role of the Encapsulation in Bioavailability of Phenolic Compounds. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 923.

Check the encapsulation materials and methods in the following tables as of this publication

Encapsulation of phenolic acids and stilbenes

Core MaterialWall MaterialEncapsulation Method
ferulic acidchitosan-tripolyphosphate pentasodiumionic gelation
ferulic acidpoly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)double emulsion
caffeic acidpoly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)emulsion
syringic acidD-Alpha tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)thin-film dispersion
trans-resveratrolpoly-D,L-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA)precipitation

Encapsulation of flavonoids

Flavonoid CategoryCore MaterialWall MaterialEncapsulation Method
flavanolsquercetinchitosanionic gelation
flavanolsquercetinpoly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)emulsion diffusion evaporation
flavanolsquercetinsoluplus micellesfilm dispersion
flavanolsquercetinlinseed oil, GMS, P6, Tween 80, 1,1-propylene glycolhigh pressure homogenization
flavanolsquercetinpoly-D,L-lactide (PLA)solvent evaporation
flavanolsquercetinglycerol monostearate (GMS), medium chaintriglycerides (MCT), soy lecithinemulsifying and solidifying
flavanolsquercetinzein, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrinspray-drying
flavanolsquercetincasein, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrincoacervation
flavanolsquercetinpoly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)solvent displacement
flavanolsquercetinsoy lecithin, glyceryl tridecanoate, glyceryl tripalmitate, vitamin E acetate, Kolliphor HS15phase inversion
flavanolskaempferolchitosan, sodium tripolyphosphateionic gelation
flavanolskaempferollecithin–chitosanelectrostatic self-assembly
flavanolsfisetinDOPC, cholesterol, DODA-PEG2000liposomes
flavanolsfisetinPLGA (poly-lactide-co-glycolic acid), HPβCD (hydroxyl propyl beta cyclodextrin)emulsion, freeze drying
flavonesapigeninsoybean oil, Tween 80in vitro digestion, in vivo pharmacokinetics
flavonesrutinchitosanionic gelation
flavanonesnaringeninphospholipid, cholesterol, sodium cholate, and isopropyl myristateliposomes by thin-film dispersion
flavan-3-olsepigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)gum arabic, maltodextrinspray drying
flavan-3-olsepigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)chitosan-tripolyphosphatefreeze-drying
flavan-3-olscatechin hydratephosphatidylcholine (PC)liposomes
flavan-3-olscatechin hydratehorse chestnut, water chestnut and lotus stem starchfreeze drying
flavan-3-olsgreen tea catechinssoy proteinemulsion
flavan-3-olsgreen tea catechinsvitamin C and xylitol, γ-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose phthalatefilm-forming
flavan-3-olsgreen tea catechinshydroxypropyl methyl cellulose phthalatecoating
flavan-3-olstea catechinscorn oil and polysorbate 80emulsion
isoflavonesgenisteinSoluplus® and Vitamin E d-α-Tocopheryl polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS)organic solvent evaporation

Encapsulation of anthocyanins

Core Material*Wall MaterialEncapsulation Method
blackberry pureesβ-cyclodextrinmolecular inclusion
saffron anthocyaninsβ-glucan and β-cyclodextrinspray drying
Vaccinium ashei extractswhey protein isolatespray drying
Bryophyllum pinnatumextractβ-cyclodextrinemulsion
bran extractmaltodextrin, gum arabic, whey protein isolatespray drying
bran extractalginate-whey protein isolateionic gelation
sour cherries skins extractwhey proteins isolatefreeze-drying
bilberry extractwhey protein, citrus pectinemulsification and thermal gelation
anthocyanins standards mixturecyclodextrinsfreeze-drying
anthocyanins standards mixturechitosan hydrochloride, carboxymethyl chitosan, β-Lactoglobulinionic gelation
bilberry extractpectin amideextrusion
bilberry extractpectin amide with an additional shellac coatingemulsification/heat gelation
bilberry extractwhey proteinsspray drying
black carrot extractpolycaprolactonedouble emulsion
black carrot extractcholesterol and non-ionic surfactant (Tween 20)niosome method
mulberry-extracted anthocyaninalginate/chitosanspray drying and external gelation
red pepper wastewhey proteinspray drying and freeze-drying
bilberry extractwhey protein isolategelation

* Source of anthocyanins

Keywords: bioaccessibility; simulated gastrointestinal digestion; target delivery; controlled release; encapsulation techniques; coating materials

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