From oral formulations to drug-eluting implants: using 3D and 4D printing to develop drug delivery systems and personalized medicine
Since the start of the Precision Medicine Initiative by the United States of America in 2015, interest in personalized medicine has grown extensively. In short, personalized medicine is a term that describes medical treatment that is tuned to the individual.
One possible way to realize personalized medicine is 3D printing. When using materials that can be tuned upon stimulation, 4D printing is established. In recent years, many studies have been exploring a new field that combines 3D and 4D printing with therapeutics. This has resulted in many concepts of pharmaceutical devices and formulations that can be printed and, possibly, tailored to an individual.
Moreover, the first 3D printed drug, Spritam®, has already found its way to the clinic. This review gives an overview of various 3D and 4D printing techniques and their applications in the pharmaceutical field as drug delivery systems and personalized medicine.
Article information: Willemen, N.G.A., Morsink, M.A.J., Veerman, D. et al. From oral formulations to drug-eluting implants: using 3D and 4D printing to develop drug delivery systems and personalized medicine. Bio-des. Manuf. (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s42242-021-00157-0