Development of nicotine loaded chitosan nanoparticles for lung delivery
Abstract of Thesis
Cigarette smoking has become one of the leading causes of preventable deaths all over the world, causing a serious threat to human wellbeing and a tremendous economic burden to governments. The currently available treatment options for smoking cessation are not efficient. The pulmonary delivery of drugs by methods such as dry powder inhaler (DPI) has been recognized as one of the most efficient routes of drug delivery to the targeted area. The lung delivery of nicotine in this way would be expected to mimic the effects of tobacco smoking and could significantly reduce the negative health effects of smoking that result from nicotine addiction. The aim of this study is to develop nanoparticles with controlled physicochemical properties using biodegradable polymer of chitosan (CS) loaded with nicotine salt for pulmonary delivery as DPI formulations. The outcomes of this project are expected to be a safe and effective CS-based nicotine formulation for pulmonary delivery to treat nicotine dependence. This thesis specially addresses the research questions: (1) how to develop a feasible process to manufacture the nanoparticles suitable for pulmonary drug delivery using biodegradable polymer of CS containing nicotine salt; (2) how to develop an animal model for pulmonary drug delivery from DPI formulation using a nose-only inhalation device. The current therapeutic options for treatment of smoking addiction have been reviewed, and current advancements of technology in pulmonary drug delivery are summarised. Buccal administration of drugs exhibits a low oral bioavailability, and sublingual tablets and chewing gums can be swallowed before being absorbed.