Investigation of novel supersaturating drug delivery systems of chlorthalidone
Supersaturating drug delivery systems (SDDS), as solid dispersions (SDs), stand out among strategies to enhance bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. After oral administration, their dissolution in gastrointestinal fluids often leads to supersaturation, which drives to a rapid and sustained absorption. Polymers and surfactants play important roles in SDs through inhibiting precipitation caused by transitions from amorphous into crystalline form, in supersaturated solutions, and also through improving SDs physical stability. Novel chlorthalidone SDs, a BCS IV drug, were developed using polymeric and non-polymeric carriers, specially a polymer-surfactant complex. SDs drug releases were evaluated using sink and non-sink conditions in water and biorelevant medium. Their physical stability was also monitored under different storage conditions. Polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer (SOL), sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and a combination of both showed promising results in apparent solubility studies, and therefore they were selected to compose the spray dried SDs. Dissolution studies demonstrated the SOL-SLS complex potential for providing chlorthalidone fast release (> 80% in 15 min), producing and maintaining in vitro supersaturation. This formulation comprising high drug loading (75%) reached a high supersaturation degree under non-sink condition (up to 6-fold the equilibrium solubility) once maintained for 6 h in biorelevant medium. In addition, this SD presented better physical stability when compared to the chlorthalidone neat amorphous. The SOL-SLS complex impacts positively on chlorthalidone release and physical stability, highlighting its potential as carrier in SDDS of a poorly soluble drug.