Processing of Oilseeds

Edible oils are among essential commodities of the world. In this chapter, the information regarding the status of oilseed production, composition of oilseeds, properties of fats and oils, processing methods of oilseeds, their packaging, FSSAI standards and utilization of by products is covered. The physical properties, thermal, electrical and optical properties of fats and oils are also discussed. Understanding of various processing techniques of oilseeds is very important.

Pre-treatments like cleaning, dehulling, decortications, flaking and heat treatments assist to enhance the recovery and quality of oil during processing. Oil extraction methods including ghanies, hydraulic press, screw press and solvent extraction are discussed in detail. The crude oil after extraction contains various impurities, waxes, gums, free fatty acids, phosphatides, etc., which may impart off odour and colour to the oil. Due to the presence of these components, the crude oil obtained needs to be refined by either physical or chemical refining process. Therefore, refining techniques are discussed in detail including the factors influencing these steps. In hydrogenation process, hydrogen gas is used to convert unsaturated fatty acids into saturated form, which is more stable.

This process and factors influencing this process are also explained. This chapter also includes case studies for individual oilseeds processing techniques like rapeseed, soybean, groundnut, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil and castor seed oil. Important parameters for different refined oil are given as per FSSAI guidelines. Huge amount of oil cake is obtained after processing of various oilseeds. These oil cakes are very good source of protein, fibre, acid insoluble ash, etc.; hence, these cakes can be used for food supplementation or important antibiotics, vitamins, etc.

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Article information: Kaur M., Sharma H.K., Kumar N. (2022) Processing of Oilseeds. In: Sharma H.K., Kumar N. (eds) Agro-Processing and Food Engineering. Springer, Singapore.

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