Preparation and evaluation of vancomycin spray dried powders for pulmonary delivery

The aim of the current study was to achieve a dry powder formulation of vancomycin by spray drying whilst evaluating the effect of pH and excipient type and percentage used in formulation on particle characteristics and aerosolization performance. A D-optimal design was applied to optimize the formulation comprising vancomycin and two main excipient groups; a carbohydrate bulking agent (lactose, mannitol or trehalose) and a second excipient (hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin or L-leucine) at pH 4 and 7. The physicochemical properties of particles (size, morphology, crystallinity state, residual moisture content), stability, and aerosolization characteristics were investigated.

Using the combination of two excipients increased the fine particle fraction of powder emitted from an Aerolizer® device at a flow rate of 60 L/min. Hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin showed more potential than L-leucine in aerosolization capabilities. Stability studies over 3 months of storage in 40 °C and 75% relative humidity suggested a good physical stability of the optimized formulation containing 17.39% hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin along with 29.61% trehalose relative to the amount of drug at pH 4. Use of two excipients including trehalose and hydroxypropyl beta-cyclodextrin with a total weight ratio of 47% relative to the amount of drug is appropriate for preparation of vancomycin dry powder formulation for inhalation.

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Article information: Sara Bahrainian, Mohammadreza Rouini & Kambiz Gilani (2021) Preparation and evaluation of vancomycin spray dried powders for pulmonary delivery, Pharmaceutical Development and Technology, DOI: 10.1080/10837450.2021.1915331

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