Enhancing bioaccessibility and bioavailability of carotenoids using emulsion-based delivery systems
The consumption of foods rich in antioxidants, vitamins, minerals including carotenoids etc. can boost the immune system to help fight off various infections including SARS- CoV 2 and other viruses. Carotenoids have been gaining attention particularly in food and pharmaceutical industries owing to their diverse functions including their role as pro-vitamin A activity, potent antioxidant properties, and quenching of reactive oxygen (ROS), such as singlet oxygen and lipid peroxides within the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane.
Challenges of carotenoids are their poor solubility, stability, and bioavailability.
Emulsion-based delivery systems can protect carotenoids under stress environments.
Modulation of droplet properties strongly influences bioavailability enhancement.
Nevertheless, carotenoids being lipophilic, have poor solubility in aqueous medium and are also chemically instable. They are susceptible to degrade under stimuli environmental conditions during food processing, storage and gastrointestinal passage. They also exhibit poor oral bioavailability, thus, their applications in aqueous-based foods are limited. As a consequent, suitable delivery systems including colloids-based are needed to enhance the solubility, stability and bioavailability of carotenoids. This review presents challenges of incorporation and delivery of carotenoids focusing on stability and factors affecting bioavailability.
Furthermore, designed factors impacting bioaccessibility and bioavailability of carotenoids using emulsion-based delivery systems are explicitly explained. Each delivery system exhibits its own advantages and disadvantages; thus, the delivery systems should be designed based on their targets and their further applications.
Article information: Nuntarat Boonlao, Uracha Rungsardthong Ruktanonchai, Anil Kumar Anal, Enhancing bioaccessibility and bioavailability of carotenoids using emulsion-based delivery systems, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, Volume 209, Part 2, 2022. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfb.2021.112211.