Self-microemulsifying tablets prepared by direct compression for improved resveratrol delivery
The purpose of this study was to develop self-microemulsifying (SME-) tablets to improve resveratrol solubility whilst delivering resveratrol in a preferred tablet dosage form. Resveratrol was dissolved in liquid self-microemulsifying drug delivery system (SMEDDS) (10 % w/w) and solidified through adsorption on several different solid carriers. Two ranges of synthetic amorphous silica (Sylysia® 290, 350, 470, 580; Syloid® 244FP, AL-1FP) as well as granulated magnesium aluminometasilicate (Neusilin® US2) were screened for their SMEDDS adsorbent capacity. The most efficient carrier from every range was chosen for further SME-tablet development. To counteract the high ratio of liquid in SME-tablets, additional dry binders (microcystalline cellulose, copovidone) were added to the tableting mixture, as well as superdisintegrant (croscarmellose sodium) and lubricant (magnesium stearate). Finally, approx. 600 mg tablets were directly pressed using 12 mm flat face punch, containing 41.75% SMEDDS. Overall, all tablets exhibited sufficient hardness (> 50 N), although it was negatively affected by higher compression force. Tablets with Neusilin® US2 proved to have highest hardness, as granulated structure of Neusilin® US2 provided best compaction properties needed for successful direct compression of tablets. All prepared SME tablet fomulations disintegrated in under 10 min and formed microemulsions (droplet size < 100 nm) upon dilution with water, with Neusilin® US2 tablets exhibiting the lowest droplet size (<30 nm). While conventional dissolution test indicated incomplete resveratrol release from solid carriers in both pH 1.2 and 6.8 media, no difference fatty acid amount titrated during fasted state in vitro lipolysis between liquid and solid SMEDDS was observed. Moreover, accelerated stability tests confirmed over 90% of trans-RSV remained in solid SMEDDS following 90 days at 40°C, with no crystallization of resveratrol observed during that time. To sum up, through adsorption on solid carriers, in particular Neusilin® US2, SMEDDS was successfully transformed into a directly compressible mixture and tableted without the loss of its self-microemulsifying ability.