Ocular Drug Delivery: a Comprehensive Review

The human eye is a sophisticated organ with distinctive anatomy and physiology that hinders the passage of drugs into targeted ophthalmic sites. Effective topical administration is an interest of scientists for many decades. Their difficult mission is to prolong drug residence time and guarantee an appropriate ocular permeation. Several ocular obstacles oppose effective drug delivery such as precorneal, corneal, and blood-corneal barriers. Routes for ocular delivery include topical, intravitreal, intraocular, juxtascleral, subconjunctival, intracameral, and retrobulbar. More than 95% of marketed products exists in liquid state. However, other products could be in semi-solid (ointments and gels), solid state (powder, insert and lens), or mixed (in situ gel).

Nowadays, attractiveness to nanotechnology-based carries is resulted from their capabilities to entrap both hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, enhance ocular permeability, sustain residence time, improve drug stability, and augment bioavailability. Different in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo characterization approaches help to predict the outcomes of the constructed nanocarriers. This review aims to clarify anatomy of the eye, various ocular diseases, and obstacles to ocular delivery. Moreover, it studies the advantages and drawbacks of different ocular routes of administration and dosage forms. This review also discusses different nanostructured platforms and their characterization approaches. Strategies to enhance ocular bioavailability are also explained. Finally, recent advances in ocular delivery are described.

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Following excipients are mentioned in the study besides other: Tween 80, chitosan, Poloxamer 407

Ahmed, S., Amin, M.M. & Sayed, S. Ocular Drug Delivery: a Comprehensive Review. AAPS PharmSciTech 24, 66 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1208/s12249-023-02516-9

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