Rosacea Topical Treatment and Care: From Traditional to New Drug Delivery Systems
Rosacea is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory dermatosis characterized by flushing, nontransient erythema, papules and pustules, telangiectasia, and phymatous alterations accompanied by itching, burning, or stinging, the pathophysiology of which is not yet fully understood. Conventional topical treatments usually show limited efficacy due to the physical barrier property of the skin that hinders skin penetration of the active ingredients, thereby hampering proper drug skin delivery and the respective therapeutic or cosmetic effects. New advances regarding the physiopathological understanding of the disease and the underlying mechanisms suggest the potential of new active ingredients as promising therapeutic and cosmetic approaches to this dermatosis. Additionally, the development of new drug delivery systems for skin delivery, particularly the potential of nanoparticles for the topical treatment and care of rosacea, has been described. Emphasis has been placed on their reduced nanometric size, which contributes to a significant improvement in the attainment of targeted skin drug delivery. In addition to the exposition of the known pathophysiology, epidemiology, diagnosis, and preventive measures, this Review covers the topical approaches used in the control of rosacea, including skin care, cosmetics, and topical therapies, as well as the future perspectives on these strategies.
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Ana Cláudia Paiva-Santos, Tatiana Gonçalves, Diana Peixoto, Patrícia C. Pires, K. Velsankar, Niraj Kumar Jha, Vivek P. Chavda, Imran Shair Mohammad, Letícia Caramori Cefali, Priscila Gava Mazzola, Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo, and Francisco Veiga. Rosacea Topical Treatment and Care: From Traditional to New Drug Delivery Systems. Molecular Pharmaceutics Article ASAP